Assuming a range of about 100 miles in congested conditions with speeds of 10 mph or less, the estimates range from $3600 to $13300 for Los Angeles; $2004 to $7200 for New York; $930 to $2930 for Chicago; and $1120 to $4290 for Denver. Unlike in a classic LCA, the use phase of vehicles has been modeled to cover vehicles with both a short and long lifespan in such way that the number of times a vehicle needs to be produced to cover the comparison basis or functional unit is taken into account. of one out of the three suitable functional units. environmentally friendly. It was found that the most economically efficient control of refueling and evaporative hydrocarbon emissions from cars and LDTs would result from a mixed strategy that includes fuel volatility controls and controls on service station pumps. Recommendations and PerspectivesThe article describes the need to consider all relevant parameters for the choice of a functional unit for an electric vehicle Therefore, a common power plant infrastructure including coal fired plants narrows the carbon footprint advantage of BEV over ICE, ... For E4Ws, the price of one joule of energy from electricity, regardless of its energy mix, is lower than the price of the gasoline. vehicle consumption due to the battery mass is included and the same lifetime distance target is taken into account. Similarly, more GHG emissions reductions were realized at higher AER, except when the marginal grid mix was dominated by oil or coal. The presented paper describes the methodology adopted for power flow under the V2G scheme. Science 268:993–995, Lave L, Wecker W, Reis W, Ross D (1990) Controlling emissions from motor vehicles: a benefit–cost analysis of vehicle emission control alternatives. This study implies that design for the environment (DfE) in the product design stage and green procurement are recommended for improving the entire environmental performance of electronic equipment such as PCs. Replacing fossil fuels with solar energy as the source of process heat further reduces CO2 emissions to zero, and upgrades the calorific value of the products. There are differing, yet strongly held views among the various ''stakeholders'' in the advanced fuel/propulsion system debate. The PC recycling was shown to inhibit all environmental impacts with the exception of the ozone depletion and ecotoxicity potential. This study established a novel life cycle energy use and emission inventory collecting up-to-date data including the electricity generation mix, emission controls in the power and industrial sectors, and the energy use in the fuel transport to estimate the well-to-wheels (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG), and air pollutant emissions for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and gasoline passenger vehicles in China. Increased swing enables greater all-electric range (AER) to be achieved with smaller battery packs, improving cost competitiveness of PHEVs. The saving potential of lightweight technologies increases For example, when switched onto electric power mode, these cars are almost completely silent in their operation. However, peak shaving may also lead to environmental trade-offs depending on the metric used. Estimates of EV energy use in the literature span a wide range, 0.10–0.24 kWh/km. Results reveal that electric four-wheelers are not a feasible option in developing countries due to their high purchase price. Initially, 35 studies identified in the Web of Science that matched the criteria were studied. The year 2000 emissions differences for each of four regulated pollutants - HC, CO, NO[sub x,] SO[sub x] - are estimated. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website.

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