The Akkadian dynasty, which conquered and unified Sumer with the Akkad people from the North, was founded by Sargon, a charismatic figure of mythological dimensions. (�� G o o g l e) ] 0 The empires main rival was a group called the Gutian. African Medicine In The Fight Against Corona Virus, Rise Of Civilization: The Akkadian Empire. The kings maintained power by installing their sons as governors over the major cities. 575 0 R This view is not accepted in mainstream History however, but nevertheless provides some interesting background information on the motivations for the Wars fought by Sargon of Akkad in the name of his God Ishtar. << The Akkadian empire first started its decline when there were many rebellions and attacks against the empire. 1 With the conquest of Mari and Ebla, the Empire covered all the lands between the Upper and Lower Seas, enjoying a period of great prosperity based on strenghtening the Agricultural Economy and the extension of Trade links. After a brief period of anarchy under  Gutian control, the Sumerian city-states began to reassert themselves. /Catalog The basic unit of Sumerian civilization — political, economic and religious — was the city-state. There were many good roads built between the major cities. 0 Shulgi established a system of schools to provide uniform scribal and administrative training for members of the prospective bureaucracy (as well as to create a flourishing literary tradition, including many hymns praising him) and introduced new accounting and recording procedures (including calendars, and standardized weights and measures)  and new types of archival records. The Sumerians believed that the Akkadian Empire collapsed because of a curse placed on them when Naram-Sin conquered the city of Nippur and destroyed the temple. 6 ] 9 0 0 << Texts detail laborers working in agricultural fields, digging canals, towing boats, cutting reeds and herding, and records indicating their level productivity and wages paid out in rations in the form of bread, beer, etc. << A series of conflicts between the Amorites and the Assyrians followed the end of the Akkadian Empire giving rise to the powerful city state of Babylon. /Parent There was a period of anarchy between 2192 BC and 2168 BCE. Listen to a recorded reading of this page. And at about the same time as references to the Gutians appear, texts also mention a West Semitic people, the Martu, or Amorites. Eridu, Ur, Uruk and Larsa were actually within sight of one other, competing for resources and dominance with about a dozen other city-states, such as Lagash, Umma, Kish, Adab and Shurrupak. Weaving establishments, staffed by female weavers, were large-scale industrial establishments not unlike modern factories, and produced the textiles that were a key export. The city of Babylon was the capital of the Empire and appeared first in the history after the fall of the Third Dynasty of Ur. This period marks a reversion to Sumerian as the official language, although both Sumerian and Akkadian populations had shared common culture for centuries (some of the Ur III kings even had Akkadian names). Which factor contributed to the rise of the Akkadian Empire? /MediaBox Another striking feature to keep in mind is just how small the area of Sumer actually was: about the size of Northern Ireland, with few natural boundaries between the various city-states. He was reputedly the cupbearer to the king of Kish, and came to power through a palace revolt, assuming the coveted title “King of Kish”. The mythological explanation for the collapse was hubris, the pride of Naram Sin which drew the wrath of the gods. >> Despite the importance of temples, from an early time, supreme political power resided in the secular figure of the king, and it was the king who led military efforts, often in struggles against other cities for control of irrigated land, one example being the famous border dispute between Umma and Lagash during the Early Dynastic III period (2540-2350 BC). 7 Rise of the Babylonian empire. A huge number of texts have been recovered from Drehem, where Shulgi established a central depot for the receipt of thousands of sheep and cattle, delivered by the Sumerian cities on a rotating basis as offerings. For the next two centuries the Akkadians would rule Sumer, during which time the cities carried out many revolts against them. fall of the Akkadian Empire. The temple in Sumerian city-states functioned primarily as economic institutions, central authorities which collected and distributed surpluses: agricultural goods and products of the specialized industries, such as metal working and weaving, which they supervised. 19 Do NOT follow this link or you will be banned from the site. No one knows who Sargon, the founder of the Akkadian Empire, was, nor the location of the fabled city of Akkad. 0 Temple and Palace: Two Key Institutions. Why did the Akkadian Empire weaken under the leadership of kings after Sargon? His 56-year reign included numerous battles to subdue the Sumerian city-states and many further conquests including Mari and Ebla in Syria and forays into the Ammanus and Taurus mountains, establishing what some historian call the first empire. /Type /S /Page After several attacks from the Gutian, the Akkadians lost the empire to the Gutian in 2154 B.C.E. Ur III, the Bureaucratic State: circa 2112-2004. F��:�{JK-�*��%IHig5w�u6T���f�q�t0]��_#�=`�i,�s�y��Q�#������U6k1��}� �%Q�ˮ,��� obj /Resources /Annots Check the video attached for more. endobj Around 2,100 BC, as Akkad declined, the city of Ur took its place rising to prominence a c… 0 The answers may still be uncovered in unexcavated still-unidentified sites that remain undisturbed. endobj He defeated the armies of Sumer in two battles and captured Lugalzagesi, the Sumerian king who had united (or conquered) all of Sumer and earned the title of “King of Kish”. The contentious and independent behavior of the individual city-states outside Sumer contrasts with the Sumerian tradition, as embodied in the Sumerian King-List, that kingship had descended from heaven after the Great Flood and was held by various cities, in turn, implying a kind of hegemony over the whole land. Probably it was located in the vicinity of Kish or the later Babylon, the “capital district” in which so many royal capital cities were founded, including Baghdad. R Gradually, the last Ur III king began to lose control, first of more distant provinces, then of the city-states of the Sumerian heartland. /FlateDecode 0 Other well-documented trades and crafts include forestry, pottery and metallurgy. attacks from outside people and weak government. /Filter The herds of sheep which produced the wool numbered in the tens of thousands. A: The Akkadians invaded the Fertiel Cresent. According to the legend of Sargon of Akkad, before he established the world’s first Empire of Akkad, he was the illegitimate Son of a High Priestess in the Kingdom of Kish. The collapse ushered in a Dark Age period of regional decline that lasted until the rise of the Third Dynasty of Ur in 2112 BCE. R What happened between the fall of the Akkadian Empire and the rise of the Babylonian Empire? stream weak leader unable to defend against Assyrian military machines. 720 The Akkadians are also known for introducing the concept of divine kingship. Commoners apparently owned their land as member of a family or clan, rather than as individuals, and hereditary land could be bought and sold only by certain family members. obj << This ruler’s governor at the city of Ur, known as Ur Nammu, assumed power as king of Ur and established the Ur III dynasty, which ruled for more than a century. Pressure  from the Amorites to the west forced Ur to build a defensive wall during the reign of one of Shugi’s sons, the first known example of a major defensive barrier, which seems to have been about as effective as the Maginot line. Fall of the Babylonian Empire. 18 After Sargon’s death, he was succeeded by his sons Rimush and Manishtushu who did not last long on the Throne until Manishtushu was succeeded by his own son, Naram-Sin. The practice at Ur remains a great mystery, with no parallels (yet) discovered at any other sites, except for some scant evidence at Kish and only occasional hints in surviving cuneiform texts. [ >> For example, there seems to have been an early period of domination by the city of Kish, and the title ”King of Kish” was assumed by some later kings to indicate control over all of Sumer. The fall of the empire was not caused by Naram-Sin’s hubris, but by sacrelige against temple of Enlil.

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