The difference between the results of this laboratory study and the above field reports may be related to differences between experimental conditions and other factors such as the release rates of the lures. The position of each lure in the olfactometer was alternated after each replicate (i.e., lures were reassigned to different olfactometer arms) to minimize position effect. The difference between our results and previous field reports may be due to several factors. 12 0 obj �26S073QI�r � Briefly, the apparatus consisted of a central chamber (30 × 30 × 5 cm) with orifices (arms) at the four corners through which purified and humidified air can be drawn in, creating four potential odor fields, and a central orifice where mixing of the airflow from the arms occurred. 6 0 obj PDF & Video. endobj endobj Funding for this study was provided through grants by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Region 4), Strategic Agricultural Initiative grants program (EPA Grant no. TCB was tested singly with PE at a dose similar to that detected in the BZ lure. In experiment 1, the following four treatments were compared: BZ lure, pure synthetic BEN, pure synthetic TCB, and control. Contrary to field reports, GA lure was not attractive, while BZ lure was inhibitory. x��\[���q�II�T�%)'��l��*�����%�)ّ,J�\6/�3�����Bj�������s�Y.��*s�Aw�>}��~����?��;���?z��G�ĝɤ�O��M���U�� ��|w�L�f'Ogr���ϣo�q3)�6�,��cWL�^�r9��変f�x���?�Km�q�&i���q-�fK���k/��A�KI]r2v�,ˊ���*���;o���f;�WR%U(H�vw�Y�ZE�L�h#�^�lj�^V|�E��a�mN [6����6I����z��Ng�vy�j����j!�!�&z+1�����w3=���'�O��t�-[O��m����3��y4]� ����/��v�x��f�-9���m{)86k�+��Njv�Ym�< �&MQ8��^����N�T��v�aѲ]�k����~׮�_���tx"aUBp�k�� Similar results were obtained for the other binary treatment comparisons of single lures (i.e., BZ versus GA and PE versus GA) or mixed lures (i.e., PE versus BZ + PE, PE versus BZ + GA, and PE versus PE + GA). The authors would like to thank Arthur Appel and Robert Boozer (Auburn University) and Louis Jackai (North Carolina A and T State University) for helping to review an earlier version of this paper. endobj $6.10. Of the tested lures and synthetic components, PE was by far the most attractive to both sexes. The model also allowed testing for effects of single (one-way), double (two-way), triple (three-way), ternary (four-way), and five-way interactions (a total of 31 possible interactions) (Table 1) among the five factors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The BZ and PE lures were dispensed by transferring aliquots into 0.8 mL microcentrifuge vials (USA Scientific Inc., Ocala, FL) in which a cotton string (~2.5 cm long) was threaded through a hole drilled through the lid of the cap to aid in the release of the lures. The reduced attractiveness of the combined PE + TCB treatment relative to PE further supports this possibility. However, the data which showed a threefold reduction in the response of both sexes to TCB compared to the control may suggest the possibility of an inhibitory effect of TCB. Therefore, the nonattractiveness of BZ lure and BEN could not be attributed to degradation to benzoic acid and other compounds. In fact, BZ lure is commonly regarded as the most attractive lure for plum curculio when combined with GA and is widely used for monitoring the pest in the field [17, 26, 28, 43]. Hence, we can only speculate that plum curculio is not likely to have evolved the ability to respond to TCB. Also, females were numerically more attracted to PE than to PE + TCB (Table 3). Our products help to reduce or eliminate the use of pesticides.

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