As a teacher, you can add to these organizational strategies by encouraging the development of your own relationships with class members. Self-determination means a person feels free, even if the person is also operating within certain external constraints. Koestner, R. & Losier, G. (2004). docs have to 4 years of college, 4 years of med school, and then another two years or intern working or something and have to get straight a's and its all done through determination. Differentiating may be inappropriate, too, if it holds a teacher back from covering key curriculum objectives which students need and which at least some students are able to learn. The paradox of achievement: The harder you push, the worse it gets. What programs, resources, and processes are in place within your home, school, and community to ensure that youth with disabilities are supported to learn self-determination skills? ), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. In Maslow’s theory, as in others that use the concept, a need is a relatively lasting condition or feeling that requires relief or satisfaction and that tends to influence action over the long term. Another question is whether it is possible to overdo attention to students’ needs—and again there is evidence for both favoring and contradicting this possibility. Some needs may decrease when satisfied (like hunger), but others may not (like curiosity). In motivating students, then, the bottom line is that teachers have an interest in helping students to meet their basic needs, and in not letting school rules or the teachers’ own leadership styles interfere with or block satisfaction of students’ basic needs. The University of Minnesota is an equal opportunity educator and employer. Philosophies of motivation and classroom management. (Eds. A key indicator of quality of life includes opportunities for youth to make decisions and to learn from the choices they make. What are some teaching strategies for supporting students’ needs? The goal also involves behaving as if good relationships between and among class members are not only possible, but ready to develop and perhaps even already developing. Common sense suggests that human motivations originate from some sort of inner “need.” We all think of ourselves as having various “needs,” a need for food, for example, or a need for companionship—that influences our choices and activities. Tests and term papers help subsequent learning more if returned, with comments, sooner rather than later. Discussions teach more if you include your own ideas in them, while still encouraging students’ input. In addition, you can sometimes devise tasks that create a feeling of competence because they have a “natural” solution or ending point. Self-determination skills are essential for all students, but they’re of special importance to students with disabilities. Sapon-Shevin, M. & Cohen, E. (2004). Packed with practical advice, helpful examples, and IEP resources for students themselves, this guidebook offers great ideas for developing meaningful student-led IEPs while adhering to legal requirements and evidence-based practices. Some may need help carrying a tray in the cafeteria. A particular strength of the theory is that it recognizes degrees of self-determination and bases many ideas on this reality. At the extrinsic end of the scale is learning that is regulated primarily by external rewards and constraints, whereas at the intrinsic end is learning regulated primarily by learners themselves. Elliott, A., McGregor, H., & Thrash, T. (2004). But choices also encourage some feeling of self-control even when they are about relatively minor issues, such as how to organize your desk or what kind of folder to use for storing your papers at school. In principle, a student can experience self-determination even if the student must, for example, live within externally imposed rules of appropriate classroom behavior. Distinguishing three ways of being highly motivated: a closer look at introjection, identification, and intrinsic motivation. One reason is the sheer number of students, which makes it impossible to attend to every student perfectly at all times. But there are some strategies that are generally effective even if you are not yet in a position to know the students well. One example of incorporating choice into the classroom is to list several project options, with the students choosing one of the options to demonstrate learning. In studying the animals of Africa, for example, each expert group might find information about a different particular category of animal or plant; one group might focus on mammal, another on bird, a third on reptiles, and so on. Today’s post, excerpted and adapted from Getting the Most out of IEPs by Colleen A. Thoma & Paul Wehman, offers 12 tips to help students across the age range increase self-determination. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. 217–224). Some may need help in reaching dishes on a shelf or getting in or out of the car. 260–271). Required fields are marked *. For a variety of reasons, teachers in most classrooms cannot be expected to meet all students’ basic needs at all times. The result can be a multi-faceted presentation—written, visual, and oral. independence. E-News   Furthermore, differentiating activities to students’ competence levels may be impractical if students are functioning at extremely diverse levels within a single class, as sometimes happens.

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